前言: 有时候,一个数据库有多个帐号,包括数据库管理员,开发人员,运维支撑人员等,可能有很多帐号都有比较大的权限,例如DDL操作权限(创建,修改,删除存储过程,创建,修改,删除表等),账户多了,管理起来就会相当麻烦,容易产生混乱,如果数据库管理员不监控数据库架构变更的话,就不知道谁对数据库架构做了啥改动(此处改动仅仅只DDL操作),尤其有时候,有些开发人员可能不按规章制度办事,绕过或忘了通知发布人员或DBA,直接去生产机做一些DDL操作,那么我们就需要对数据库架构某些更改的事件进行监控,如果能够监控并留下证据,这样既可以让DBA或相关管理人员知晓这些变更,有效管理数据库,也可以避免出现问题,出现扯皮现象,最后DBA成了背黑锅的。

下面就是一个解决上述问题的方案,我们通过创建一个表DatabaseLog和DDL触发器来解决问题,首先在msdb数据库里面新建一个表DatabaseLog,用来保存DDL触发器获取的信息。其中DDL触发器主要通过EVENTDATA()函数返回有关服务器或数据库事件的信息。

复制代码 代码如下:
USE msdb;
GO
CREATE TABLE [dbo].[DatabaseLog]
(
    [DatabaseLogID]   [int]    IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,
    [PostTime]        [datetime] NOT NULL,
    [DatabaseUser]    [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
    [LoginName]       [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [ClientHost]      [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [Event]           [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
    [Schema]          [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [Object]          [sysname] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL,
    [TSQL]            [nvarchar](max) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NOT NULL,
    [XmlEvent]        [xml] NOT NULL,
CONSTRAINT [PK_DatabaseLog_DatabaseLogID] PRIMARY KEY NONCLUSTERED
(
    [DatabaseLogID] ASC
  )WITH (PAD_INDEX= OFF, IGNORE_DUP_KEY = OFF) ON [PRIMARY]
) ON [PRIMARY]
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’Primary key for DatabaseLog records.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’DatabaseLogID’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The date and time the DDL change occurred.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’PostTime’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The user who implemented the DDL change.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’DatabaseUser’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The login which implemented the DDL change.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’LoginName’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The client machine on which implemented the DDL change.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’ClientHost’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The type of DDL statement that was executed.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’Event’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The schema to which the changed object belongs.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’Schema’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The object that was changed by the DDL statment.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’Object’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The exact Transact- statement that was executed.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’TSQL’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’The raw XML data generated by database trigger.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’COLUMN’,@level2name=N’XmlEvent’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’Audit table tracking all DDL changes made to the database. Data is captured by the database trigger ddlDatabaseTriggerLog.’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’
GO
EXEC sys.sp_addextendedproperty@name=N’MS_Description’, @value=N’Primary key (nonclustered) constraint’ , @level0type=N’SCHEMA’,@level0name=N’dbo’, @level1type=N’TABLE’,@level1name=N’DatabaseLog’, @level2type=N’CONSTRAINT’,@level2name=N’PK_DatabaseLog_DatabaseLogID’
GO

例如,我要监控数据库MyAssistant的DDL操作,那么我们首先在“数据库邮件”里面创建一个配置名为“ DataBase_DDL_Event”的配置文件(profile name),这个就不多讲了,不知道配置的,自己先练练手把,假如我需要让数据库把监控到DDL操作变动相信信息发送到我的邮箱 *****@***.com(用你自己的邮箱替代),那么只需要修改下面代码的邮箱和profile_name即可。

复制代码 代码如下:
USE MyAssistant;
GO

CREATE TRIGGER [DTG_DatabaseDdlTriggerLog]
ON DATABASE
FOR DDL_DATABASE_LEVEL_EVENTS
AS
BEGIN
    SET NOCOUNT ON;

    DECLARE @data XML;
    DECLARE @schema sysname;
    DECLARE @object sysname;
    DECLARE @eventType sysname;
    DECLARE @tableHTML  NVARCHAR(MAX) ;

    SET @data = EVENTDATA();
    SET @eventType = @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/EventType)[1]’, ‘sysname’);
    SET @schema = @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/SchemaName)[1]’, ‘sysname’);
    SET @object = @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/ObjectName)[1]’, ‘sysname’)

    IF @object IS NOT NULL
        PRINT ‘  ‘ + @eventType + ‘ – ‘ + @schema + ‘.’ + @object;
    ELSE
        PRINT ‘  ‘ + @eventType + ‘ – ‘ + @schema;

    IF @eventType IS NULL
        PRINT CONVERT(nvarchar(max), @data);

    INSERT [msdb].[dbo].[DatabaseLog]
        (
        [PostTime],
        [DatabaseUser],
        [LoginName],
        [ClientHost],
        [Event],
        [Schema],
        [Object],
        [TSQL],
        [XmlEvent]
        )
    VALUES
        (
        GETDATE(),
        CONVERT(sysname, CURRENT_USER),
        @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/LoginName)[1]’, ‘nvarchar(max)’),
        CONVERT(sysname, HOST_NAME()),
        @eventType,
        CONVERT(sysname, @schema),
        CONVERT(sysname, @object),
        @data.value(‘(/EVENT_INSTANCE/TSQLCommand)[1]’, ‘nvarchar(max)’),
        @data
        );

    SET @tableHTML =  
    N'<H1>DDL Event</H1>’ +    
    N'<table border=”0″>’ +    
    N'<tr><th>Post Time</th><th>User</th><th>Login</th><th>ClientHost</th>’ +    
    N'<th>TSQL</th><th></tr>’ +    
    CAST(( SELECT
    td = PostTime,       ”,                    
    td = DatabaseUser, ”,       
    td = LoginName, ”,    
    td = ClientHost, ”,        
    td = TSQL, ”              
    FROM msdb.dbo.DatabaseLog              
    WHERE DatabaseLogID =(select max(DatabaseLogID) from msdb.dbo.DatabaseLog)              
    FOR XML PATH(‘tr’), TYPE     ) AS NVARCHAR(MAX) ) +     N'</table>’ ;

    EXEC msdb.dbo.sp_send_dbmail    
             @profile_name = ‘DataBase_DDL_Event’,
        @recipients=’***@***.com’,    
        @subject = ‘DDL Event – DataBase MyAssistant’,    
        @body = @tableHTML,  
        @body_format = ‘HTML’ ;
END;
GO

接下来我们来测试一下,假如一个用户Test登录数据库,一不小心删除了一个Test的表,如下图一所示,那么我将收到一封邮件,提示我用户Test在那台客户端主机执行了啥DDL操作(如下图二所示),当然邮件的样式、排版有兴趣的可以去美化一下。

 

MSSQL监控数据库的DDL操作(创建,修改,删除存储过程,创建,修改,删除表等)

MSSQL监控数据库的DDL操作(创建,修改,删除存储过程,创建,修改,删除表等)

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